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Fix the verbatim issue

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Nico Schottelius 3 years ago
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a5858febf0
  1. 239
      doc/Background.tex
  2. 2
      doc/Introduction.tex
  3. BIN
      doc/Thesis.pdf
  4. 12
      doc/Thesis.tex
  5. 133
      doc/appendix.tex

239
doc/Background.tex

@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ parser will read and parse in the ingress pipeline one protocol
\caption{P4 protocol independence~\cite{vanbever:_progr_networ_data_planes}}
\label{fig:p4fromnsg}
\end{figure}
The \textit{target independence} is the second strong feature
The \textit{target independence} is the second major feature
of P4: it allows code to be compiled to different targets. While in
theory the P4 code should be completely target independent, in reality,
there are some modifications needed on a per-target basis and each
@ -47,8 +47,9 @@ the higher level protocol identifier.\footnote{
This is important because
Ethernet can only reference one protocol, which makes IPv4 and IPv6
mutually exclusive.
The figures \ref{fig:ipv4header} and \ref{fig:ipv6header} show the
packet headers of IPv4 and IPv6. The most notable differences between
In the figures \ref{fig:ipv4header} and \ref{fig:ipv6header} we
show the packet headers of IPv4 and IPv6 for showing the in-protocol
differences. The most notable differences between
the two protocols for this thesis are:
\begin{itemize}
\item Different address lengths
@ -67,11 +68,12 @@ addressing for protocols that have no or limited addressing support
(like TCP or UDP), protocols like ARP~\cite{rfc826} and
NDP~\cite{rfc4861} provide support for resolving IPv6 and IPv4
addresses to hardware (MAC) addresses. While both ARP and NDP are only
used prior to establishing a connection on and their results are
cached, their availability is crucial for operating a switch.
used prior to establishing a connection and their results are
cached, their availability is crucial for operating a switch, because
without ARP or NDP no connection will every be established.
Figure \ref{fig:arpndp} illustrates a typical address resolution process.
\begin{figure}[h]
\includegraphics[scale=0.3]{arp-ndp}
\includegraphics[scale=0.4]{arp-ndp}
\centering
\caption{ARP and NDP}
\label{fig:arpndp}
@ -90,8 +92,9 @@ way to communicate to the target IPv4 address (``The chicken and the
egg problem'').
NDP on the other hand already works within IPv6, as every IPv6 host is
required to have a self-assigned link local IPv6 address from the
range \texttt{fe80::/10} (compare RFC4291~\cite{rfc4291}). NDP also
does not require broadcast communication, because hosts automatically
IPv6 network \texttt{fe80::/10} (compare
RFC4291~\cite{rfc4291}). While ARP uses broadcasting for address
resolution, NDP uses multicasting. IPv6 hosts automatically
join multicast groups that embed parts of their
IPv6 addresses~\cite{rfc2710},~\cite{wikipedia:_solic}. This way the
collision domain is significantly reduced in IPv6, compared to IPv4.
@ -101,13 +104,13 @@ section \ref{results:netpfga:features}), the requirement to generate checksums
over payload poses difficult problems for some hardware targets. Even
more difficult is the use of options within ICMP6.
\begin{figure}[h]
\includegraphics[scale=0.3]{icmp6ndp}
\includegraphics[scale=0.4]{icmp6ndp}
\centering
\caption{ICMP6 option fields}
\label{fig:icmp6ndp}
\end{figure}
The problem arises from the layout of the options, as seen in the
following quote and in figure \ref{fig:icmp6ndp}:
The problem arises from the layout of the options, as seen
in figure \ref{fig:icmp6ndp} and the following quote:
\begin{quote}
``Neighbor Discovery messages include zero or more options, some of
which may appear multiple times in the same message. Options should
@ -116,18 +119,17 @@ be padded when necessary to ensure that they end on their natural
\end{quote}
ICMP6 and ICMP are primarily used to signal errors in
communication. Specifically signalling that a packet is too big to
communication. Specifically, signalling that a packet is too big to
pass a certain link and needs fragmentation is a common functionality
of both protocols. For a host (or switch) to be able to emit ICMP6 and
of both protocols. For a host (or a switch) to be able to emit ICMP6 and
ICMP messages, the host requires a valid IPv6 / IPv4 address.
Without ICMP6 / ICMP support path MTU
discovery~\cite{rfc1191},~\cite{rfc8201}
does not work and the sender needs to determine
different ways of finding out the maximum MTU on the path.
% ok -- need to separate backgroun and results
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
\section{\label{background:transition}IPv6 Translation Mechanisms}
While in this thesis the focus was in NAT64 as a translation mechanism,
While in this thesis we focus on NAT64 as a translation mechanism,
there are a variety of different approaches, some of which we would
like to portray here.
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
@ -151,61 +153,64 @@ translation direction, a translator will need to re-arrange fields to
a different position, remove fields and add fields.
\begin{figure}[h]
\begin{verbatim}
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Version| Traffic Class | Flow Label |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Payload Length | Next Header | Hop Limit |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| |
+ +
| |
+ Source Address +
| |
+ +
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| |
+ +
| |
+ Destination Address +
| |
+ +
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Version| Traffic Class | Flow Label |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Payload Length | Next Header | Hop Limit |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| |
+ +
| |
+ Source Address +
| |
+ +
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| |
+ +
| |
+ Destination Address +
| |
+ +
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\end{verbatim}
\centering
\caption{IPv6 Header~\cite{rfc2460}}
\label{fig:ipv6header}
\end{figure}
This in turn causes the packet size for standard headers
to differ by 160 Bit.\footnote{IPv6: 320 Bit, IPv4 160 Bit}
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
\subsection{\label{background:transition:statefulnat64}Stateful NAT64}
Stateful NAT64 as defined in RFC6146~\cite{rfc6146} defines how to
create 1:n mappings between IPv6 and IPv4 hosts. The motivation for
stateful NAT64 is similar to stateful NAT44~\cite{rfc3022}: it allows
translating many IPv6 addresses to one IPv4 address. While the
opposite translation is also technically possible, the differences in
address space don't justify its use in general.
stateful NAT64 is similar to stateful NAT44~\cite{rfc3022}: while
NAT44 allows translating many (private) IPv4 addresses to one
(public) IPv4 address,
NAT64 allows translating many IPv6 addresses to one IPv4 address.
While the opposite stateful translation, mapping many IPv4 addresses
to one IPv6 address, is also technically possible,
the differences in address space size don't justify its use in general.
\begin{figure}[h]
\begin{verbatim}
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Version| IHL |Type of Service| Total Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Identification |Flags| Fragment Offset |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Time to Live | Protocol | Header Checksum |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Source Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Destination Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Options | Padding |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|Version| IHL |Type of Service| Total Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Identification |Flags| Fragment Offset |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Time to Live | Protocol | Header Checksum |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Source Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Destination Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Options | Padding |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\end{verbatim}
\caption{IPv4 Header~\cite{rfc791}}
\label{fig:ipv4header}
@ -238,17 +243,20 @@ Further translation can be achieved by using information in higher
level protocols like HTTP~\cite{rfc2616} or TLS~\cite{rfc4366}.
Application proxies like
nginx~\cite{nginx:_nginx_high_perfor_load_balan}
use layer 7 protocol
information to proxy towards backends. Within this proxying method,
the underlying IP protocol can be changed from IPv6 to IPv4 and vice
versa. However, the requested hostname that is usually used for
selecting the backend is encrypted in TLS 1.3~\cite{rfc8446}, which
poses a challenge for implementations.
use layer 7 protocol information, like the requested hostname,
to proxy towards backends.
Within this proxying method, the underlying IP protocol can be changed
from IPv6 to IPv4 and vice versa. However, if using HTTPS with TLS
1.3~\cite{rfc8446}, the requested hostname that is usually used for
selecting the backend can be encrypted, which poses a challenge for
implementations.
While protocol dependent translation has the highest amount of
information to choose from for translation, complex parsers or even
cryptographic methods are required for it. That reduces the
opportunities of protocol dependent translation.
opportunities of protocol dependent translations to run on devices
with less sophisticated devices.
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
\subsection{\label{background:transition:prefixnat}Mapping IPv4
Addresses in IPv6}
@ -256,8 +264,9 @@ As described in section \ref{background:ip}, one of the major
differences between IPv6 and IPv4 is the address length. As the whole
IPv4 Internet can be represented in only 32 bits, it is a common
practice to assign an IPv6 prefix for IPv6 hosts that represents a
mapping to the IPv4 Internet. In RFC6052~\cite{rfc6502} the well
known prefix \textit{64:ff9b::/96} is defined. One possibility to map
mapping to the whole IPv4 Internet. In RFC6052~\cite{rfc6502} the well
known prefix \textit{64:ff9b::/96} is defined that can be used for
this purpose. One possibility to map
an IPv4 address into the prefix is by adding its integer value to the
prefix, treating it as an offset. In figure \ref{fig:ipv4embed}
we show example python code of how this can be done.
@ -286,21 +295,21 @@ other prefix lengths are defined in RFC6052 (see figure
\ref{fig:prefixlen}) that allow flexible embedding of the IPv4 address.
\begin{figure}[h]
\begin{verbatim}
+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|PL| 0-------------32--40--48--56--64--72--80--88--96--104---------|
+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|32| prefix |v4(32) | u | suffix |
+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|40| prefix |v4(24) | u |(8)| suffix |
+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|48| prefix |v4(16) | u | (16) | suffix |
+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|56| prefix |(8)| u | v4(24) | suffix |
+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|64| prefix | u | v4(32) | suffix |
+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|96| prefix | v4(32) |
+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|PL| 0-------------32--40--48--56--64--72--80--88--96--104---------|
+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|32| prefix |v4(32) | u | suffix |
+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|40| prefix |v4(24) | u |(8)| suffix |
+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|48| prefix |v4(16) | u | (16) | suffix |
+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|56| prefix |(8)| u | v4(24) | suffix |
+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|64| prefix | u | v4(32) | suffix |
+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|96| prefix | v4(32) |
+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
\end{verbatim}
\centering
\caption{IPv4 embedding depending on the prefix length}
@ -335,14 +344,16 @@ A record and gets an answer that the name
\textit{ipv4onlyhost.example.com} resolves to the IPv4 address
\textit{192.0.2.0}. The DNS64 server then embeds the IPv4 address in
the configured IPv6 prefix (\textit{64:ff9b::/96} in this case) and
returns a fake AAAA record to the IPv6 only host. The IPv6 only host
returns a fake AAAA record to the IPv6 only host (pointing to
\textit{64:ff9b::c000:200} in this case). The IPv6 only host
then will use the address to connect to. The NAT64 translator recognises
either that the address is part of a configured prefix or that it has
a dedicated table entry for mapping this IPv6 address to an IPv4
address and translates it accordingly.
% ok
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
\section{\label{background:checksums}Protocol Checksums}
One challenge for translating IPv6-IPv4 are checksums of higher level
One challenge for translating IPv6 to IPv4 are checksums of higher level
protocols like TCP and UDP that incorporate information from the lower
level protocols. The pseudo header for upper layer protocols for
IPv6 is defined in RFC2460~\cite{rfc2460} and shown in figure
@ -350,27 +361,27 @@ IPv6 is defined in RFC2460~\cite{rfc2460} and shown in figure
defined in RFC768 and RFC793 and are shown in \ref{fig:ipv4pseudoheader}.
\begin{figure}[h]
\begin{verbatim}
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| |
+ +
| |
+ Source Address +
| |
+ +
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| |
+ +
| |
+ Destination Address +
| |
+ +
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Upper-Layer Packet Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| zero | Next Header |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| |
+ +
| |
+ Source Address +
| |
+ +
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| |
+ +
| |
+ Destination Address +
| |
+ +
| |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Upper-Layer Packet Length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| zero | Next Header |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
\end{verbatim}
\centering
\caption{IPv6 Pseudo Header}
@ -383,14 +394,14 @@ important because some targets (like the NetFPGA) do not allow to
access the payload (see section \ref{design:netpfga}).
\begin{figure}[h]
\begin{verbatim}
0 7 8 15 16 23 24 31
+--------+--------+--------+--------+
| source address |
+--------+--------+--------+--------+
| destination address |
+--------+--------+--------+--------+
| zero |protocol| TCP/UDP length |
+--------+--------+--------+--------+
0 7 8 15 16 23 24 31
+--------+--------+--------+--------+
| source address |
+--------+--------+--------+--------+
| destination address |
+--------+--------+--------+--------+
| zero |protocol| TCP/UDP length |
+--------+--------+--------+--------+
\end{verbatim}
\centering
\caption{IPv4 Pseudo Header}

2
doc/Introduction.tex

@ -68,7 +68,7 @@ with legacy IPv4 devices still needs to be provided.
\end{figure}
IPv6 hosts and IPv4 hosts cannot directly connect to each other,
because the protocols are incompatible to each other.
To allow communication between different protocol hosts,
To allow communication between different protocol host!s,
several transition mechanisms have been
proposed~\cite{wikipedia:_ipv6},~\cite{rfc4213}.
\begin{figure}[h]

BIN
doc/Thesis.pdf

Binary file not shown.

12
doc/Thesis.tex

@ -8,7 +8,7 @@
\makeatletter
\newcommand{\verbatimfont}[1]{\renewcommand{\verbatim@font}{\ttfamily#1}}
%\newcommand{\verbatimfont}[1]{\renewcommand{\verbatim@font}{\ttfamily#1}}
\makeatother
\input{preamble}
@ -17,7 +17,15 @@
%** begin the document environment
\begin{document}
\verbatimfont{\tiny}%
%\verbatimfont{\tiny}%
%\renewcommand{\verbatim@font}{\normalfont\ttfamily\hyphenchar\font\m@ne\@noligs}
% \tiny\ttfamily}
\begin{tiny}
\end{tiny}
\frenchspacing
\sloppy

133
doc/appendix.tex

@ -49,11 +49,12 @@ After that the variable \texttt{P4\_PROJECT\_NAME} in
read \texttt{export P4\_PROJECT\_NAME=minip4}
instead of \texttt{export P4\_PROJECT\_NAME=switch\_calc}.
Sample code for installation:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
mkdir -p ~/projects
git clone git@github.com:NetFPGA/P4-NetFPGA-live.git P4-NetFPGA
sed -i 's/\(P4_PROJECT_NAME=\).*/\1minip4/' ~/projects/P4-NetFPGA/tools/settings.sh
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Version \textbf{v1.3.1-46-g97d3aaa} of the P4-NetPFGA repository was
used for creating the bitfiles of this project.
\begin{verbatim}
@ -87,7 +88,7 @@ First we get the integer values of the IPv4 addresses in python:
>>>
\end{verbatim}
After that we set the table table entries for the NetFPGA.
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
>> table_cam_add_entry realmain_v4_networks_0 realmain.set_egress_port 167772202 => 16 0 0 0 0
fields = [(u'hit', 1), (u'action_run', 3), (u'out_port', 8), (u'out_port', 8), (u'mac_addr', 48), (u'task', 16), (u'table_id', 16)]
action_name = TopPipe.realmain.set_egress_port
@ -120,16 +121,18 @@ READ 0x44020244 = 0x0001
success
>>
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
On the host we setup the ARP entries:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
root@ESPRIMO-P956:~# ip neigh add 10.0.0.6 lladdr f8:f2:1e:09:62:d1 dev enp2s0f0
root@ESPRIMO-P956:~# ip neigh add 10.0.0.4 lladdr f8:f2:1e:09:62:d1 dev enp2s0f0
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
And then we generate test packets and expect 4 packets to show up on
enp2s0f0.
The following \texttt{tcpdump} output shows the expected packets
arriving on enp2s0f0:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
nico@ESPRIMO-P956:~$ sudo tcpdump -ni enp2s0f0
tcpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v or -vv for full protocol decode
listening on enp2s0f0, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 262144 bytes
@ -138,6 +141,7 @@ listening on enp2s0f0, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 262144 bytes
10:49:29.222340 IP 10.0.0.42 > 10.0.0.4: ICMP echo request, id 4440, seq 2, length 64
10:49:29.222418 IP 10.0.0.42 > 10.0.0.4: ICMP echo request, id 4440, seq 2, length 64
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
% ok
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
\subsection{Test 2: IPv6 egress}
@ -153,6 +157,7 @@ the Integer values of the IPv6 addresses:
42540766411362381960998550477184434242L
\end{verbatim}
After that we set the table entries:
\begin{tiny}
\begin{verbatim}
>> table_cam_add_entry realmain_v6_networks_0 realmain.set_egress_port 42540766411362381960998550477184434182 => 64 0 0 0 0
fields = [(u'hit', 1), (u'action_run', 3), (u'out_port', 8), (u'out_port', 8), (u'mac_addr', 48), (u'task', 16), (u'table_id', 16)]
@ -192,13 +197,15 @@ READ 0x44020344 = 0x0001
success
>>
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
On the host we set the IPv6 neighbor entries:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
nico@ESPRIMO-P956:~$ sudo ip -6 neigh add 2001:db8:42::6 lladdr f8:f2:1e:09:62:d0 dev enp2s0f1
nico@ESPRIMO-P956:~$ sudo ip -6 neigh add 2001:db8:42::4 lladdr f8:f2:1e:09:62:d0 dev enp2s0f1
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
And generate the test packets:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
nico@ESPRIMO-P956:~$ ping6 -c2 2001:db8:42::6
PING 2001:db8:42::6(2001:db8:42::6) 56 data bytes
@ -211,6 +218,7 @@ listening on enp2s0f1, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 262144 bytes
11:30:18.310178 IP6 2001:db8:42::42 > 2001:db8:42::6: ICMP6, echo request, seq 2, length 64
11:30:18.310258 IP6 2001:db8:42::42 > 2001:db8:42::6: ICMP6, echo request, seq 2, length 64
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
The packets are successfully seen by tcpdump.
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
\section{\label{appendix:bmv2}P4/BMV2 environment and tests}
@ -250,7 +258,7 @@ Sometimes flashing bitfiles to the NetFPGA will fail. A random amount
of reboots (1 to 3) and a random amount of reflashing will fix this
problem.
Below can be found the log output from the flashing process.
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
nico@nsg-System:~/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/simple_sume_switch/bitfiles$
sudo bash -c ". $HOME/master-thesis/netpfga/bashinit && $(pwd -P)/program_switch.sh"
++ which vivado
@ -296,6 +304,7 @@ nf3: ERROR while getting interface flags: No such device
+ bash config_writes.sh
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
% ok
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
\section{\label{appendix:netpfgalogs:flashsuccess}NetFPGA Flash Success}
@ -305,7 +314,7 @@ its succeeding lines are missing, as seen below.
After that in all cases a reboot is required; the PCI rescan in none
of our test cases re enabled the nf devices.
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
nico@nsg-System:~$ cd $NF_DESIGN_DIR/bitfiles/
nico@nsg-System:~/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/simple_sume_switch/bitfiles$
sudo bash -c ". $HOME/master-thesis/netpfga/bashinit && $(pwd -P)/program_switch.sh"
@ -349,12 +358,13 @@ nf3: ERROR while getting interface flags: No such device
+ bash config_writes.sh
nico@nsg-System:~/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/simple_sume_switch/bitfiles$
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
% ok
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
\section{\label{appendix:netfpgalogs:kernelmodule}NetFPGA Kernel module}
After a successful flash, loading the kernel module will enable nf
devices to appear in the operating system.
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
nico@nsg-System:~$ ip l
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT group default qlen 1000
link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
@ -420,13 +430,14 @@ nico@nsg-System:~$ ip l
nico@nsg-System:~$
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
\section{\label{appendix:netfpgalogs:compilelogs}NetFPGA compile logs}
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
This section shows a compilation of of NetFPGA compile output and errors.
Unfound tbl files that are not correctly generated fail the compilation:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
# Fix introduced for SDNet 2017.4
sed -i 's/xsim\.dir\/xsc\/dpi\.so/dpi\.so/g' nf_sume_sdnet_ip/SimpleSumeSwitch/vivado_sim.bash
sed -i 's/xsim\.dir\/xsc\/dpi\.so/dpi\.so/g' nf_sume_sdnet_ip/SimpleSumeSwitch/vivado_sim_waveform.bash
@ -438,13 +449,15 @@ cp: cannot stat 'src/*.tbl': No such file or directory
make: *** [Makefile:23: cpp_test] Error 1
[23:12] loch:minip4%
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Failure to generate an intermediate file:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
ERROR: [XSIM 43-3409] Failed to compile generated C file xsim.dir/work.SimpleSumeSwitch_tb#work.glbl/obj/xsim_3.c.
ERROR: [XSIM 43-3915] Encountered a fatal error. Cannot continue. Exiting...
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Failure to compile because libncurses.so.5 is missing:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
/opt/Xilinx/Vivado/2018.2/data/../tps/llvm/3.1/lnx64.o/bin/clang -fPIC -c -std=gnu89 -nobuiltininc -nostdinc++ -w -Wl,--unres
olved-symbols=ignore-in-object-files -fbracket-depth=1048576 -I/opt/Xilinx/Vivado/2018.2/data/../tps/llvm/3.1/lnx64.o/bin/../li
b/clang/3.1/include -fPIC -m64 -I"/opt/Xilinx/Vivado/2018.2/data/xsim/include" "xsim.dir/work.SimpleSumeSwitch_tb#work.glbl/ob
@ -455,9 +468,10 @@ ERROR: [XSIM 43-3409] Failed to compile generated C file xsim.dir/work.SimpleSum
ERROR: [XSIM 43-3915] Encountered a fatal error. Cannot continue. Exiting...
[20:00] rainbow:SimpleSumeSwitch%
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Failure to access txt files that were not correctly generated in a
different compilation step:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
# Fix introduced for SDNet 2018.2
sed -i 's/glbl_sim/glbl/g' nf_sume_sdnet_ip/SimpleSumeSwitch/vivado_sim_waveform.bash
sed -i 's/SimpleSumeSwitch_tb_sim#work.glbl/SimpleSumeSwitch_tb/g' nf_sume_sdnet_ip/SimpleSumeSwitch/vivado_sim_waveform.bash
@ -467,8 +481,9 @@ cp: cannot stat 'testdata/*.txt': No such file or directory
make: *** [Makefile:17: all] Error 1
[15:46] rainbow:minip4%
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Missing pcap files of non generated testdata causing compile abortion:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
make -C testdata/
make[1]: Entering directory '/home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/testdata'
./gen_testdata.py
@ -490,7 +505,9 @@ make[1]: Leaving directory '/home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume
make: *** [Makefile:32: frontend] Error 2
[15:47] rainbow:minip4%
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Syntax errors due to incorrect generation of a python script:
\begin{tiny}
\begin{verbatim}
update_compile_order: Time (s): cpu = 00:00:17 ; elapsed = 00:00:09 . Memory (MB): peak = 1995.594 ; gain = 0.016 ; free physic
al = 21975 ; free virtual = 33161
@ -512,8 +529,9 @@ IndentationError: expected an indented block
ume_switch_sim.tcl" line 177)
INFO: [Common 17-206] Exiting Vivado at Sat May 18 15:21:21 2019...
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Missing axi files don't abort the compilation process: (shortened for formatting)
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
cp: cannot stat 'simple_sume_switch/test/nf_interface_0_log.axi': No such file or directory
cp: cannot stat 'simple_sume_switch/test/nf_interface_0_stim.axi': No such file or directory
cp: cannot stat 'simple_sume_switch/test/nf_interface_0_expected.axi': No such file or directory
@ -536,8 +554,9 @@ cp: cannot stat 'simple_sume_switch/test/reg_stim.axi': No such file or director
['/home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/simple_sume_switch/test/sim_switch_default/run.py',
'--sim', 'xsim']
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Add Wave error during compilation: (shortened for formatting)
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
# add_wave $nf_sume_sdnet_ip/out_src_port
# add_wave $nf_sume_sdnet_ip/out_dst_port
# set const_reg_ip /top_tb/top_sim/nf_datapath_0/nf_sume_sdnet_wrapper_1/inst/SimpleSumeSwitch_inst/const_reg_rw_0/
@ -565,8 +584,9 @@ cp: cannot stat 'simple_sume_switch/test/dma_0_log.axi': No such file or directo
using cmd ['/home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/simple_sume_switch/test/sim_switch_default/run.py', '--sim', 'xsim']
[15:31] rainbow:P4-NetFPGA%
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Compilation error failing to run ``connect\_bd\_intf\_net.''
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
ERROR: [BD 41-171] The modes of the interface pins 'cfg_interrupt'(Slave) and 'pcie3_cfg_interrupt'(Slave) are incompatible. They cannot be connected.
ERROR: [BD 5-3] Error: running connect_bd_intf_net.
ERROR: [Common 17-39] 'connect_bd_intf_net' failed due to earlier errors.
@ -585,8 +605,9 @@ ERROR: [Common 17-39] 'connect_bd_intf_net' failed due to earlier errors.
"source ./tcl/control_sub.tcl"
(file "tcl/simple_sume_switch.tcl" line 89)
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Compilation aborts due to missing IP:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
### set NF_10G_INTERFACE3_BASEADDR $M07_BASEADDR
### set NF_10G_INTERFACE3_HIGHADDR $M07_HIGHADDR
### set NF_10G_INTERFACE3_SIZEADDR $M07_SIZEADDR
@ -600,8 +621,9 @@ hw/project/simple_sume_switch.srcs/sources_1/bd/control_sub/control_sub.bd>
ERROR: [Coretcl 2-1134] No IP matching VLNV 'NetFPGA:NetFPGA:nf_sume_sdnet:*' was found. Please check your repository configuration.
INFO: [Common 17-206] Exiting Vivado at Sat May 25 11:52:01 2019...
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Mismatch: a non-critical critical error that does not abort the compilation process
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
[SW] CAM_EnableDevice() - done
[2420698] INFO: finished packet stimulus file
[2735572] ERROR: tuple mismatch for packet 1
@ -611,8 +633,9 @@ $finish called at time : 2735572 ps : File
"/home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/nf_sume_sdnet_ip/SimpleSumeSwitch/Testbench/Check.v"
Line 120
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Missing interface when testing switch\_calc:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
root@rainbow:~/master-thesis/netpfga/minip4/sw/hw_test_tool# python switch_calc_tester.py
SIOCSIFADDR: No such device
eth1: ERROR while getting interface flags: No such device
@ -623,6 +646,7 @@ The HW testing tool for the switch_calc design
type help to see all commands
testing>
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Ioctl error when adding table errors on the first NetFPGA card:
\begin{verbatim}
>> table_cam_add_entry lookup_table send_to_port1 ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff =>
@ -634,7 +658,7 @@ python: ioctl: Unknown error 512
[20:27] rainbow:CLI%
\end{verbatim}
Exec format errors when loading the kernel module due to incompabilities:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
[7:05] rainbow:netpfga% bash build-load-drivers.sh
+ cd /home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/lib/sw/std/driver/sume_riffa_v1_0_0
+ make all
@ -656,8 +680,10 @@ depmod -a 5.0.0-16-generic
modprobe: ERROR: could not insert 'sume_riffa': Exec format error
[7:06] rainbow:netpfga%
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Java traceback when trying to install SDNET:
(reason was a hidden window)
\begin{tiny}
\begin{verbatim}
Exception in thread "AWT-EventQueue-0" java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Window must not be zero
at java.desktop/sun.awt.X11.XAtom.checkWindow(Unknown Source)
@ -719,8 +745,9 @@ Exception in thread "AWT-EventQueue-0" java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Windo
at java.desktop/java.awt.EventDispatchThread.pumpEvents(Unknown Source)
at java.desktop/java.awt.EventDispatchThread.run(Unknown Source)
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Failures when testing the first NetFPGA card
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
---------------------------------------------
[ddr3B]: Running Auto Test
---------------------------------------------
@ -752,7 +779,9 @@ Traceback (most recent call last):
raise child_exception
OSError: [Errno 2] No such file or directory
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
More failures when testing the first NetFPGA card
\begin{tiny}
\begin{verbatim}
---------------------------------------------
[pcie]: Running Auto Test
@ -777,6 +806,7 @@ Traceback (most recent call last):
raise SerialException('device reports readiness to read but returned no data (device disconnected or multiple access on port?)')
SerialException: device reports readiness to read but returned no data (device disconnected or multiple access on port?)
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Unexpected EOF during compilation:
\begin{verbatim}
ERROR: [VRFC 10-1491] unexpected EOF
@ -791,6 +821,7 @@ INFO: [VRFC 10-311] analyzing module TopDeparser_t_EngineStage_5_ErrorCheck
INFO: [VRFC 10-311] analyzing module TopDeparser_t_EngineStage_6_ErrorCheck
\end{verbatim}
The function syntax is not supported by p4/netfpga:
\begin{tiny}
\begin{verbatim}
make[1]: Entering directory '/home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/src'
p4c-sdnet -o minip4.sdnet --sdnet_info .sdnet_switch_info.dat minip4_solution.p4
@ -805,9 +836,10 @@ Makefile:31: recipe for target 'frontend' failed
make: *** [frontend] Error 2
nico@nsg-System:~/master-thesis/netpfga$
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
The config\_writes.py is missing due to a previous, non critical
compilation error:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
nico@nsg-System:~/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/simple_sume_switch/test/sim_switch_default$
cd $NF_DESIGN_DIR/test/sim_switch_default && make 2>&1 | tee ~/master-thesis/netpfga/log/step8-$(date +%F-%H%M%S)
rm -f config_writes.py*
@ -817,8 +849,9 @@ cp: cannot stat '/home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-swit
Makefile:36: recipe for target 'all' failed
make: *** [all] Error 1
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Failed to synthesizing module errors:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
WARNING: [Synth 8-689] width (12) of port connection 'control_S_AXI_ARADDR' does not match port width (8) of module 'SimpleSumeSwitch'
[/home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/simple_sume_switch/hw/project/
simple_sume_switch.srcs/sources_1/ip/nf_sume_sdnet_ip/nf_sume_sdnet_ip/wrapper/nf_sume_sdnet.v:199]
@ -841,8 +874,9 @@ ERROR: [Synth 8-6156] failed synthesizing module 'top'
[/home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/
simple_sume_switch/hw/hdl/top.v:43]
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Missing ``souce'' files abort CLI compilation errors:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
cc -c -fPIC /home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/sw/API/CAM.c
-I/home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/sw/API
cc -std=c99 -Wall -Werror -fPIC -c libcam.c
@ -857,7 +891,9 @@ make[1]: *** [libcam] Error 1
make[1]: Leaving directory '/home/nico/master-thesis/netpfga/minip4/sw/CLI'
ERROR: could not compile libcam souce files
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Generated axi files not found at a different stage:
\begin{tiny}
\begin{verbatim}
cp: cannot stat '/home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/
sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/simple_sume_switch/test/dma_0_expected.axi': No such file or directory
@ -877,14 +913,16 @@ NetFPGA environment:
512
=== Work directory is /tmp/nico/test/simple_sume_switch
=== Setting up test in /tmp/nico/test/simple_sume_switch/sim_switch_default
=== Running test /tmp/nico/test/simple_sume_switch/sim_switch_default ... using cmd ['/home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/simple_sume_switch/test/sim_switch_default/run.py', '--sim', 'xsim']
+ date
=== Running test /tmp/nico/test/simple_sume_switch/sim_switch_default ... using
cmd ['/home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/
minip4/simple_sume_switch/test/sim_switch_default/run.py', '--sim', 'xsim']+ date
Die Jul 23 13:34:54 CEST 2019
+ [ = no ]
+ cd /home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/simple_sume_switch
+ make
make: *** No targets specified and no makefile found. Stop.
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Renaming variables as follows breaks the compile process
\begin{verbatim}
@Xilinx_MaxPacketRegion(1024)
@ -906,6 +944,7 @@ Renaming variables as follows breaks the compile process
}
\end{verbatim}
In NetPFGA the LPM table size must be != 64:
\begin{tiny}
\begin{verbatim}
minip4_solution.p4(38): [--Wwarn=uninitialized_out_param] warning: out parameter meta may be uninitialized when RealParser terminates
out metadata meta,
@ -932,8 +971,9 @@ Makefile:31: recipe for target 'frontend' failed
make: *** [frontend] Error 2
nico@nsg-System:~/master-thesis/netpfga/log$
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Cannot mix the key table types with P4/NetFPGA:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
make[1]: Entering directory '/home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/src'
p4c-sdnet -o minip4.sdnet --sdnet_info .sdnet_switch_info.dat minip4_solution.p4
actions_egress.p4(52): warning: Table v6_networks is not used; removing
@ -973,8 +1013,9 @@ make[1]: *** [all] Error 1
default_action = controller_debug_table_id(TABLE_ARP);
}
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Implicit error saying that LPM tables don't work in P4/NetFPGA:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
s/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/nf_sume_sdnet_ip/SimpleSumeSwitch/realmain_lookup_table_0_t.HDL/xpm_memory.sv
[SW] LPM_Init() - start
[SW] LPM_Init() - done
@ -984,8 +1025,9 @@ FATAL_ERROR: Vivado Simulator kernel has encounted an exception from DPI C funct
Time: 2016466 ps Iteration: 0 Process: /SimpleSumeSwitch_tb/LPM_VerifyDataset
File: /home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/nf_sume_sdnet_ip/SimpleSumeSwitch/Testbench/SimpleSumeSwitch_tb.sv
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
The table for exact matches must be at least 64 in P4/NetFPGA:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
minip4_solution.p4(35)
parser RealParser(
^^^^^^^^^^
@ -996,8 +1038,9 @@ actions_nat64_generic.p4(173): error: could not not map table size size
size = 63;
^^^^
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Unsupported default parameters in P4/NetFPGA:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
actions_egress.p4(89): error: data-plane arguments in default_actions are currently unsupported: realmain_controller_debug_table_id_0
default_action = controller_debug_table_id(TABLE_V4_NETWORKS);
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
@ -1007,8 +1050,9 @@ Compiler Bug: actions_egress.p4(89): unhandled expression realmain_controller_de
default_action = controller_debug_table_id(TABLE_V4_NETWORKS);
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Causing compiler bug by using an if statement at a wrong place in P4/NetFPGA:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
minip4_solution.p4(39)
parser RealParser(
^^^^^^^^^^
@ -1021,8 +1065,10 @@ make[1]: *** [all] Error 134
make[1]: Leaving directory '/home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/src'
Makefile:31: recipe for target 'frontend' failed
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Applying table ``twice'' in different branches is impossible in
P4/NetFPGA causes a different compiler bug:
\begin{tiny}
\begin{verbatim}
make -C src/
make[1]: Entering directory '/home/nico/projects/P4-NetFPGA/contrib-projects/sume-sdnet-switch/projects/minip4/src'
@ -1039,20 +1085,26 @@ Compiler Bug: overwrite
Makefile:34: recipe for target 'all' failed
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Adding table entries requires setting parameters for all possible
actions that are registered in a table:
\begin{tiny}
\begin{verbatim}
>> table_cam_add_entry realmain_v6_networks_0 realmain.set_egress_port
42540766411362381960998550477184434178 => 1 ERROR: not enough fields provided to complete _hexify()
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
The table handling scripts do not handle conversion for long integers
for P4/NetFPGA:
\begin{tiny}
\begin{verbatim}
>> table_cam_delete_entry realmain_v6_networks_0 42540766411362381960998550477184434179
ERROR: failed to convert 42540766411362381960998550477184434179 of type <type 'long'> to an integer
nico@nsg-System:~/master-thesis/netpfga/minip4/sw/CLI$
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
A P4/BMV2 compiler error:
\begin{tiny}
\begin{verbatim}
Warning: you requested the nanomsg event logger, but bmv2 was compiled without -DBMELOG, and the event logger cannot be activated
Calling target program-options parser
@ -1083,6 +1135,7 @@ bad json:
}
}
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Inability of P4/BMV2 to have multiple LPM keys in a table:
\begin{verbatim}
@ -1106,12 +1159,15 @@ Compilation Error
}
\end{verbatim}
Switch statements are not allowed in P4/BMV:
\begin{tiny}
\begin{verbatim}
../p4src/static-mapping.p4(60): error: SwitchStatement: switch statements not allowed in actions
switch(hdr.icmp6.type) {
^^^^^^
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
And also no ifs in actions:
\begin{tiny}
\begin{verbatim}
../p4src/static-mapping.p4(57): error: MethodCallStatement: Conditional execution in actions is not supported on this target
hdr.icmp.setValid();
@ -1132,7 +1188,9 @@ p4@ubuntu:~/master-thesis/p4app$
nat64_icmp6();
}
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Compiler bug in P4/BMV2:
\begin{tiny}
\begin{verbatim}
p4c --target bmv2 --arch v1model --std p4-16 "../p4src/checksum_diff.p4" -o "/home/p4/master-thesis/p4src"
In file: /home/p4/p4-tools/p4c/backends/bmv2/common/expression.cpp:168
@ -1157,6 +1215,7 @@ And p4c version:
```p4@ubuntu:~/master-thesis/p4app$ p4c --version
p4c 0.5 (SHA: 5ae30ee)```
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
%----------------------------------------------------------------------
\chapter{\label{benchmark}Benchmark Logs}
@ -1273,7 +1332,7 @@ rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.097/0.200/0.304/0.104 ms
[15:12] nsg-System:~#
\end{verbatim}
We also setup the IPv6 networking:
\begin{verbatim}
\begin{tiny}\begin{verbatim}
nico@ESPRIMO-P956:~$ ip addr show dev enp2s0f1
13: enp2s0f1: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP group default qlen 1000
link/ether f8:f2:1e:09:62:d1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
@ -1286,6 +1345,7 @@ nico@ESPRIMO-P956:~$ sudo ip route add 2001:db8:23::/96 via 2001:db8:42::77
[15:12] nsg-System:~# ip addr add 2001:db8:42::77/64 dev eth2
[15:15] nsg-System:~# ip link set eth2 up
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
And verify that IPv6 networking works:
\begin{verbatim}
nico@ESPRIMO-P956:~$ ping6 -c2 2001:db8:42::77
@ -1307,6 +1367,7 @@ net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding = 1
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
\end{verbatim}
And we test NAT64 with tayga:
\begin{tiny}
\begin{verbatim}
nico@ESPRIMO-P956:~$ ping -c2 10.0.1.42
PING 10.0.1.42 (10.0.1.42) 56(84) bytes of data.
@ -1331,6 +1392,8 @@ listening on enp2s0f1, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 262144 bytes
0 packets dropped by kernel
nico@ESPRIMO-P956:~$
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
And test NAT64 from IPv6 to IPv4:
\begin{verbatim}
nico@ESPRIMO-P956:~$ ping6 -c2 2001:db8:23::a00:2a
@ -1347,6 +1410,7 @@ nico@ESPRIMO-P956:~$
\section{\label{benchmark:jool}Jool}
We install Jool 4.0.1 from source from
\url{https://www.jool.mx/en/download.html} as follows:
\begin{tiny}
\begin{verbatim}
nico@nsg-System:~$ wget https://github.com/NICMx/Jool/releases/download/v4.0.1/jool_4.0.1.tar.gz
nico@nsg-System:~$ tar xvfz jool_4.0.1.tar.gz
@ -1356,6 +1420,7 @@ nico@nsg-System:~/jool-4.0.1$ sudo apt install libnl-genl-3-dev
nico@nsg-System:~/jool-4.0.1$ sudo apt install iptables-dev
nico@nsg-System:~/jool-4.0.1$ sudo make install
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
We enable forwarding:
\begin{verbatim}
sysctl -w net.ipv4.conf.all.forwarding=1
@ -1363,6 +1428,7 @@ sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding=1
\end{verbatim}
We configure jool to map the network prefixes and setup iptables to
redirect the traffic into the jool instance:
\begin{tiny}
\begin{verbatim}
[16:53] nsg-System:~# modprobe jool_siit
[16:54] nsg-System:~# jool_siit instance add "example" --iptables
@ -1371,6 +1437,7 @@ redirect the traffic into the jool instance:
[16:57] nsg-System:~# ip6tables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -s 2001:db8:42::/120 -d 2001:db8:23::/120 -j JOOL_SIIT --instance example
[16:57] nsg-System:~# iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -s 10.0.0.0/24 -d 10.0.1.0/24 -j JOOL_SIIT --instance example
\end{verbatim}
\end{tiny}
Afterwards we test NAT64:
\begin{verbatim}
nico@ESPRIMO-P956:~/master-thesis/iperf$ ping6 2001:db8:23::2a

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