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CLOUD-AGENT(8) - System Manager's Manual


cloud-agent - cloud provisioning for OpenBSD VMs


cloud-agent [-nuv] [-c cloud[,cloud...]] [-p length] [-r rootdisk] [-t timeout] [-U username] interface


The cloud-agent program manages the OpenBSD provisioning and VM interaction in cloud environments.

The options are as follows:

-c cloud[,cloud...]

Probe a list of cloud stacks for provisioning in the specified order. If this option is not specified, cloud-agent tries to detect the environment and possible cloud stacks automatically. Supported cloud stacks are:


Microsoft Azure


Generic cloud-init


Amazon AWS EC2





-p length

Generate and set a random password for the default user. The password will be written in its plain form into the ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file. This allows to use the doas(1) command to gain root privileges. The minimum length is 8 characters and the default is an empty password.


Do not configure the system and skip the provisioning step.

-t timeout

Change the HTTP timeout. The default is 3 seconds.

-U username

Change the default user. The default is "ec2-user" on AWS, "azure-user" on Azure, and "puffy" everywhere else. The default user is used when it is not obtained from the cloud configuration. Using "root" is supported, but not recommended.

-r rootdisk

Automatically grow the last OpenBSD FFS partition of the root disk to use all the available space.


Deprovision and unconfigure the system. This deletes keys, passwords, and logs files without asking for permission.


Produce more verbose output.

Enable cloud-agent in the hostname.if(5) of the VM's primary networking interface and automatically the last partition of the root disk:

# cat /etc/hostname.hvn0
!/usr/local/libexec/cloud-agent -r sd0 "\$if"



The location of the agent-configured SSH public keys and optional password.


The agent itself.


The CMS binary that is used to decrypt messages from the Azure fabric.


The instance ID as reported by the cloud. cloud-agent reprovisions the system when the value has changed.


meta-data(8), vmd(8)


Reyk Floeter <>

OpenBSD 6.5 - June 26, 2019