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 3 years ago %** Introduction.tex: Contains an introduction to  % the topic and motivates the work.  % State what the reader can find where.    3 years ago %** Problem.tex: Documentation in own words of the problem to  % be addressed in this document:  % What is the challenge, why is it useful what you  % plan to do.      %% In \ref{introduction} we start with our introduction to the problem that we  %% are going to address. Since we do not want to waste the readers time we  %% go and show the essential issues of latex in section  %% \ref{chapter2:essentials}.      \chapter{\label{introduction}Introduction}  3 years ago In this chapter we give an introduction about the topic of the master  3 years ago thesis, the motivation, and problems that we address. We explain the  current state of IPv4 exhaustion and IPv6 adoption and describe how  3 years ago it motivates our work to support to ease transition to IPv6 networks.    3 years ago % ----------------------------------------------------------------------  3 years ago \section{\label{introduction:ipv4ipv6}IPv4 Exhaustion and IPv6 Adoption}  3 years ago The Internet has almost completely run out of public IPv4 space. The  3 years ago 5 Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) report IPv4 exhaustion worldwide  3 years ago \cite{ripe_exhaustion},  3 years ago \cite{apnic_exhaustion},  3 years ago \cite{lacnic:_ipv4_deplet_phases},  \cite{afrinic:_afrin_ipv4_exhaus},  3 years ago \cite{arin:_ipv4_addres_option}.  Figure \ref{fig:riripv4rundown} contains summarised data from all RIRs  and projects complete IPv4 addresses depletion by 2021.  The LACNIC project even predicts complete exhaustion for 2020 as shown  in figure \ref{fig:lacnicexhaust}.  \begin{figure}[h]   \includegraphics[scale=0.5]{rir-ipv4-rundown}   \centering   \caption{RIR IPv4 Rundown Projection~\cite{huston:_ipv4_addres_repor}}   \label{fig:riripv4rundown}  \end{figure}  3 years ago \begin{figure}[h]   \includegraphics[scale=0.7]{lacnicdepletion}   \centering   \caption{LACNIC Exhaustion Projection~\cite{lacnic:_ipv4_deplet_phases}}  3 years ago  \label{fig:lacnicexhaust}  \end{figure}    3 years ago On the other hand, IPv6 adoption grows significantly, with at least  3 years ago three countries (India, US, Belgium) surpassing 50\%  adoption~\cite{akamai:_ipv6_adopt_visual},  \cite{vyncke:_ipv6_deploy_aggreg_status},  \cite{cisco:_ipv6}. Traffic from Google users reaches almost 30\% as  of 2019-08-08~\cite{google:_ipv6_googl}, see figure \ref{fig:googlev6}.    We conclude that IPv6 is a technology strongly gaining importance.  IPv4 depletion is estimated to be happening worldwide in the  next years. Thus more devices will be using IPv6, while communication  with legacy IPv4 devices still needs to be provided.  % ok  % ----------------------------------------------------------------------  \section{\label{introduction:motivation}Motivation}  3 years ago \begin{figure}[h]   \includegraphics[scale=0.2]{googlev6}   \centering   \caption{Google IPv6 Statistics~\cite{google:_ipv6_googl}}  3 years ago  \label{fig:googlev6}  \end{figure}  IPv6 hosts and IPv4 hosts cannot directly connect to each other,  3 years ago because the protocols are incompatible to each other.  3 years ago To allow communication between different protocol hosts,  several transition mechanisms have been  3 years ago proposed~\cite{wikipedia:_ipv6},~\cite{rfc4213}.  \begin{figure}[h]   \includegraphics[scale=0.4]{v6-v6-separated}   \centering   \caption{Separated IPv6 and IPv4 Network Segments}  3 years ago  \label{fig:v6v4separated}  \end{figure}  3 years ago However installation and configuration of the transition mechanism  3 years ago usually require in-depth knowledge about both protocols and require  3 years ago additional hardware to be added in the network.  3 years ago In this thesis we show an in-network transition method based on  3 years ago NAT64~\cite{rfc6146}. Compared to traditional NAT64 methods which  require hosts to explicitly use an extra device in the  network,\footnote{Usually the default router will take this role.}  our proposed method is transparent to the hosts.  This way the routing and network configuration does not need to be  changed to support NAT64 within a network.  3 years ago Currently network operators have to focus on two network stacks when  3 years ago designing networks: IPv6 and IPv4. While in a small scale setup this  3 years ago might not introduce significant complexity, figure  3 years ago \ref{fig:v6v4separated} shows how the complexity quickly grows  even with a small number of hosts.  The proposed in-network solution does not only ease the installation and  3 years ago deployment of IPv6, but it also allows line speed translation, because  it is compiled into target dependent low level code that can run in  3 years ago ASICs~\cite{networks:_tofin},  FPGAs~\cite{netfpga:_p4_netpf_public_github}  or even in  3 years ago software~\cite{_implem_your_switc_target_with_bmv2}. Figure  \ref{fig:v6v4mixed} shows how the design differs for an in-network  solution.  3 years ago Even on fast CPUs, software solutions like  Tayga~\cite{lutchansky:_Tayga_simpl_nat64_linux}  3 years ago can be CPU bound (see section \ref{results:softwarenat64}) and are  3 years ago incapable of translating protocols at line speed.