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\chapter{\label{results}Results}
%** Results.tex: What were the results achieved including an evaluation
%
This section describes the achieved results and compares the P4 based
implementation with real world software solutions.
We distinguish the software implementation of P4 (BMV2) and the
hardware implementation (NetFPGA) due to significant differences in
deployment and development. We present benchmarks for the existing
software solutions as well as for our hardware implementation. As the
objective of this thesis is to demonstrate the high speed
capabilities of NAT64 in hardware, no benchmarks were performed on the
P4 software implementation.
% ok
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
\section{\label{results:p4}P4 Based Implementations}
3 years ago
We successfully implemented P4 code to realise
NAT64~\cite{schottelius:thesisrepo}. It contains parsers
3 years ago
for all related protocols (IPv6, IPv4, UDP, TCP, ICMP, ICMP6, NDP,
ARP), supports EAMT as defined by RFC7757 ~\cite{rfc7757}, and is
3 years ago
feature equivalent to the two compared software solutions
Tayga~\cite{lutchansky:_Tayga_simpl_nat64_linux} and
Jool~\cite{mexico:_Jool_open_sourc_siit_nat64_linux}.
3 years ago
Due to limitations in the P4 environment of the
3 years ago
NetFPGA environment, the BMV2 implementation
is more feature rich.
3 years ago
For this thesis the parsing capabilities of P4 were adequate.
However P4, at the time of writing, cannot parse ICMP6 options in
general, as the upper level protocol does not specify the number
of option blocks that follow. Parsing of an unspecified number
3 years ago
of 64 bit blocks is required, which P4 does not support.
3 years ago
The language has some limitations on the placement of
conditional statements (\texttt{if/switch}).\footnote{In general,
if and switch statements in actions lead to errors,
but not all constellations are forbidden.}
Furthermore P4/BMV2 does not support for multiple LPM keys in a table,
however it supports multiple keys with ternary matching, which is a
superset of LPM matching.
When developing P4 programs, the reason for incorrect behaviour we
have seen were checksum problems. This is in retrospective expected,
as the main task of our implementation is modifying headers on which
the checksums depend. In all cases we have seen Ethernet frame
checksum errors, the effective length of the packet was incorrect.
The tooling around P4 is somewhat fragile. We encountered small
language bugs during the development~\cite{schottelius:github1675},
3 years ago
(compare section \ref{appendix:netfpgalogs:compilelogs})
or found missing features~\cite{schottelius:github745},
~\cite{theojepsen:_get}: it is at the moment impossible to retrieve
the matching key from table or the name of the action called. Thus
if different table entries call the same action, it is impossible
within the action, or if forwarded to the controller, within the
controller to distinguish on which match the action was
triggered. This problem is very consistent within P4, not even the
matching table name can be retrieved. While these information can be
added manually as additional fields in the table entries, we would
expect a language to support reading and forwarding this kind of meta
information.
While in P4 the P4 code and the related controller are tightly
coupled, their data definitions are not. Thus the packet format
definition that is used between the P4 switch and the controller has
to be duplicated. Our experiences in software development indicate
that this duplication is a likely source of errors in bigger software
projects.
The supporting scripts in the P4 toolchain are usually written in
python2. However, python2 ``is
legacy''~\cite{various:_shoul_i_python_python}. During development
errors with unicode string handling in python2 caused
changes to IPv6 addresses.
3 years ago
% ok
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
3 years ago
\section{\label{results:bmv2}P4/BMV2}
3 years ago
The software implementation of P4 has most features, which is
3 years ago
mostly due to the capability of creating checksums over the payload.
It enables the switch to act as a ``proper'' participant in NDP, as
this requires the host to calculate checksums over the payload.
Table~\ref{tab:p4bmv2features} references all implemented features.
3 years ago
\begin{table}[htbp]
\begin{center}\begin{minipage}{\textwidth}
\begin{tabular}{| c | c | c |}
\hline
\textbf{Feature} & \textbf{Description} & \textbf{Status} \\
\hline
3 years ago
Switch to controller & Switch forwards unhandled packets to
3 years ago
controller & fully implemented\footnote{Source code: \texttt{actions\_egress.p4}}\\
\hline
Controller to Switch & Controller can setup table entries &
fully implemented\footnote{Source code: \texttt{controller.py}}\\
\hline
NDP & Switch responds to ICMP6 neighbor & \\
& solicitation request (without controller) &
fully implemented\footnote{Source code:
\texttt{actions\_icmp6\_ndp\_icmp.p4}} \\
\hline
ARP & Switch can answer ARP request (without controller) & fully
implemented\footnote{Source code: \texttt{actions\_arp.p4}}\\
\hline
ICMP6 & Switch responds to ICMP6 echo request (without controller) &
fully implemented\footnote{Source code: \texttt{actions\_icmp6\_ndp\_icmp.p4}} \\
\hline
ICMP & Switch responds to ICMP echo request (without controller) &
fully implemented\footnote{Source code: \texttt{actions\_icmp6\_ndp\_icmp.p4}} \\
\hline
NAT64: TCP & Switch translates TCP with checksumming & \\
& from/to IPv6 to/from IPv4 &
fully implemented\footnote{Source code: \texttt{actions\_nat64\_generic\_icmp.p4}} \\
\hline
NAT64: UDP & Switch translates UDP with checksumming & \\
& from/to IPv6 to/from IPv4 &
fully implemented\footnote{Source code: \texttt{actions\_nat64\_generic\_icmp.p4}} \\
\hline
NAT64: & Switch translates echo request/reply & \\
ICMP/ICMP6 & from/to ICMP6 to/from ICMP with checksumming &
fully implemented\footnote{Source code: \texttt{actions\_nat64\_generic\_icmp.p4}} \\
\hline
NAT64: Sessions & Switch and controller create 1:n sessions/mappings &
fully implemented\footnote{Source code:
\texttt{actions\_nat64\_session.p4}, \texttt{controller.py}} \\
\hline
Delta Checksum & Switch can calculate checksum without payload
inspection &
fully implemented\footnote{Source code: \texttt{actions\_delta\_checksum.p4}}\\
\hline
Payload Checksum & Switch can calculate checksum with payload inspection &
fully implemented\footnote{Source code: \texttt{checksum\_bmv2.p4}}\\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{minipage}
\caption{P4/BMV2 Feature List}
3 years ago
\label{tab:p4bmv2features}
\end{center}
\end{table}
3 years ago
The switch responds to ICMP echo requests, ICMP6 echo requests,
answers NDP and ARP requests. Overall P4/BMV is very easy to use,
3 years ago
even without a controller a fully functional network host can be
implemented.
This P4/BMV implementation supports translating ICMP/ICMP6
echo request and echo reply messages, but does not support
all ICMP/ICMP6 translations that are defined in
RFC6145~\cite{rfc6145}.
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
3 years ago
\section{\label{results:netpfga}P4/NetFPGA}
In the following section we describe the achieved feature set of
P4/NetFPGA in detail and analyse differences to the BMV2 based
implementation.
% ok
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
3 years ago
\subsection{\label{results:netpfga:features}Features}
While the NetFPGA target supports P4, compared to P4/BMV2
we only implemented a reduced features set on P4/NetPFGA. The first
reason for this is missing
support of the NetFPGA P4 compiler to inspect payload and to compute
checksums over payload. While this can (partially) be compensated
using delta checksums, the compile time of 2 to 6 hours contributed to
a significant slower development cycle compared to BMV2.
Lastly, the focus of this thesis is to implement high speed NAT64 on
3 years ago
P4, which only requires a subset of the features that we realised on
BMV2. In table \ref{tab:p4netpfgafeatures} we summarise the implemented
features and reason about their portability afterwards:
3 years ago
\begin{table}[htbp]
\begin{center}\begin{minipage}{\textwidth}
\begin{tabular}{| c | c | c |}
\hline
\textbf{Feature} & \textbf{Description} & \textbf{Status} \\
\hline
3 years ago
Switch to controller & Switch forwards unhandled packets to
controller & portable\\
3 years ago
\hline
Controller to Switch & Controller can setup table entries &
portable\\
3 years ago
\hline
NDP & Switch responds to ICMP6 neighbor & \\
& solicitation request (without controller) &
portable\\
3 years ago
\hline
ARP & Switch can answer ARP request (without controller) &
portable \\
3 years ago
\hline
ICMP6 & Switch responds to ICMP6 echo request (without controller) &
portable\\
3 years ago
\hline
ICMP & Switch responds to ICMP echo request (without controller) &
portable\\
3 years ago
\hline
NAT64: TCP & Switch translates TCP with checksumming & \\
& from/to IPv6 to/from IPv4 &
fully implemented\footnote{Source code: \texttt{actions\_nat64\_generic\_icmp.p4}} \\
\hline
NAT64: UDP & Switch translates UDP with checksumming & \\
& from/to IPv6 to/from IPv4 &
fully implemented\footnote{Source code: \texttt{actions\_nat64\_generic\_icmp.p4}} \\
\hline
NAT64: & Switch translates echo request/reply & \\
ICMP/ICMP6 & from/to ICMP6 to/from ICMP with checksumming &
portable\\
3 years ago
\hline
NAT64: Sessions & Switch and controller create 1:n sessions/mappings &
portable\\
3 years ago
\hline
Delta Checksum & Switch can calculate checksum without payload
inspection &
fully implemented\footnote{Source code: \texttt{actions\_delta\_checksum.p4}}\\
\hline
Payload Checksum & Switch can calculate checksum with payload inspection &
unsupported \\
3 years ago
\hline
\end{tabular}
\end{minipage}
\caption{P4/NetFPGA Feature List}
3 years ago
\label{tab:p4netpfgafeatures}
\end{center}
\end{table}
The switch to controller communication differs,
because the P4/NetFPGA implementation does not have the clone3() extern
that the BMV2 implementation offers. However communication to the
controller can easily be realised by using one of
the additional ports of the NetFPGA and connect a physical network
card to it.
Communicating from the controller towards the switch also differs, as
the p4utils suite supporting BMV2 offers an easy access to the switch
tables. While the P4-NetFPGA support repository also offers python
scripts to modify the switch tables, the code is less sophisticated
and more fragile. While porting the existing code is possible, it
might be of advantage to rewrite parts of the P4-NetFPGA before.
The NAT64 session support is based on the P4 switch communicating with
the controller and vice versa. As we consider both features to be
portable, we also consider the NAT64 session feature to be portable.
P4/NetFPGA does not offer calculating the checksum over the payload
and thus calculating the checksum over the payload creating
a reply for an neighbor solicitation packet is not possible. However,
as the payload stays the same as in the request, our delta based
checksum approach can be reused in this situation. With the same
reasoning we consider our ICMP6 and ICMP code, which also requires to
create payload based checksums, to be portable.
ARP replies do not contain a checksum over the payload, thus the
existing ARP code can be directly integrated into P4/NetFPGA without
any changes.
While the P4/NetFPGA target currently does not support accessing the
payload or creating checksums over it, there are two possibilities to
extend the platform: either by creating an HDL module or by
modifying the generated PX
program.~\cite{schottelius:_exter_p4_netpf}
Due to the existing code complexity of the P4/NetFPGA platform, using
the HDL module based approach is likely to be more sustainable.
3 years ago
% ok
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
3 years ago
\subsection{\label{results:netpfga:stability}Stability}
Two different NetPFGA cards were used during the development of this
3 years ago
thesis. The first card had consistent ioctl errors (compare section
3 years ago
\ref{appendix:netfpgalogs:compilelogs}) when writing table entries. The available
3 years ago
hardware tests (compare figures \ref{fig:hwtestnico} and
\ref{fig:hwtesthendrik}) showed failures in both cards, however the
first card reported an additional ``10G\_Loopback'' failure. Due to
the inability of setting table entries, no benchmarking was performed
on the first NetFPGA card.
\begin{figure}[htbp]
3 years ago
\includegraphics[scale=1.4]{hwtestnico}
\centering
\caption{Hardware Test NetPFGA Card 1}
3 years ago
\label{fig:hwtestnico}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}[htbp]
3 years ago
\includegraphics[scale=0.2]{hwtesthendrik}
\centering
\caption{Hardware Test NetPFGA Card 2~\cite{hendrik:_p4_progr_fpga_semes_thesis_sa}}
3 years ago
\label{fig:hwtesthendrik}
\end{figure}
During the development and benchmarking, the second NetFPGA card stopped to
3 years ago
function properly multiple times. In theses cases the card would not
forward packets anymore. Multiple reboots (up to 3)
3 years ago
and multiple times reflashing the bitstream to the NetFPGA usually
restored the intended behaviour. However due to this ``crashes'', it
was impossible for us to run a benchmark for more than one hour.
3 years ago
Similarly, sometimes flashing the bitstream to the NetFPGA would fail.
3 years ago
It was required to reboot the host containing the
NetFPGA card up to 3 times to enable successful flashing.\footnote{Typical
output of the flashing process would be: ``fpga configuration
failed. DONE PIN is not HIGH''}
% ok
3 years ago
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
\subsubsection{\label{results:netpfga:performance}Performance}
3 years ago
The NetFPGA card performed at near line speed and offers
3 years ago
NAT64 translations at 9.28 Gbit/s (see section \ref{results:benchmark}
for details).
Single and multiple streams
performed almost exactly identical and have been consistent through
multiple iterations of the benchmarks.
3 years ago
% ok
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
3 years ago
\subsection{\label{results:netpfga:usability}Usability}
The handling and usability of the NetFPGA card is rather difficult. In
this section we describe our findings and experiences with the card
and its toolchain.
3 years ago
To use the NetFPGA, the tools Vivado and SDNET provided by Xilinx need to be
installed. However a bug in the installer triggers an infinite loop,
if a certain shared library\footnote{The required shared library
is libncurses5.} is missing on the target operating system. The
installation program seems to be still progressing, however never
finishes.
While the NetFPGA card supports P4, the toolchains and supporting
scripts are in an immature state. The compilation process consists of
at least 9 different steps, which are interdependent.\footnote{See
source code \texttt{bin/do-all-steps.sh}.} Some of the steps generate
shell scripts and python scripts that in turn generate JSON
data.\footnote{One compilation step calls the script
``config\_writes.py''. This script failed with a syntax error, as it
contained incomplete python code. The scripts config\_writes.py
and config\_writes.sh are generated by gen\_config\_writes.py.
The output of the script gen\_config\_writes.py depends on the content
of config\_writes.txt. That file is generated by the simulation
``xsim''. The file ``SimpleSumeSwitch\_tb.sv'' contains code that is
responsible for writing config\_writes.txt and uses a function
named axi4\_lite\_master\_write\_request\_control for generating the
output. This in turn is dependent on the output of a script named
gen\_testdata.py.}
However incorrect parsing generates syntactically incorrect
scripts or scripts that generate incorrect output. The toolchain
3 years ago
provided by the NetFPGA-P4 repository contains more than 80000 lines
of code. The supporting scripts for setting table entries require
setting the parameters for all possible actions, not only for the
selected action. Supplying only the required parameters results in a
crash of the supporting script.
The documentation for using the NetFPGA-P4 repository is very
distributed and does not contain a reference on how to use the
tools. Mapping of egress ports and their metadata field are found in a
python script that is used for generating test data.
The compile process can take up to 6 hours and because the different
steps are interdependent, errors in a previous stage were in our
experiences detected hours after they happened. The resulting log
files of the compilation process can be up to 5 MB in size. Within
this log file various commands output references to other logfiles,
however the referenced logfiles do not exist before or after the
compile process.
During the compile process various informational, warning and error
messages are printed. However some informational messages constitute
critical errors, while on the other hand critical errors and syntax
3 years ago
errors often do not constitute a critical
error.\footnote{F.i. ``CRITICAL WARNING: [BD 41-737] Cannot set the
parameter TRANSLATION\_MODE on /axi\_interconnect\_0. It is
read-only.'' is a non critical warning.}
Also contradicting
3 years ago
output is generated.\footnote{While using version 2018.2, the following
message was printed: ``WARNING: command 'get\_user\_parameter' will be removed in the 2015.3
release, use 'get\_user\_parameters' instead''.}
3 years ago
Programs or scripts that are called during the compile process do not
necessarily exit non zero if they encountered a critical error. Thus
finding the source of an error can be difficult due to the compile
3 years ago
process continuing after critical errors occurred. Not only programs
3 years ago
that have critical errors exit ``successfully'', but also python
scripts that encounter critical paths don't abort with raise(), but
print an error message to stdout and don't abort with an error.
The most often encountered critical compile error is
``Run 'impl\_1' has not been launched. Unable to open''. This error
indicates that something in the previous compile steps failed and can
refer to incorrectly generated testdata to unsupported LPM tables.
The NetFPGA kernel module provides access to virtual Linux
devices (nf0...nf3). However tcpdump does not see any packets that are
emitted from the switch. The only possibility to capture packets
that are emitted from the switch is by connecting a physical cable to
the port and capturing on the other side.
3 years ago
Jumbo frames\footnote{Frames with an MTU greater than 1500 bytes.} are
commonly used in 10 Gbit/s networks. According to
\cite{wikipedia:_jumbo}, even many gigabit network interface card
support jumbo frames. However according to emails on the private
NetPFGA mailing list, the NetFPGA only supports 1500 byte frames at
the moment and additional work is required to implement support for
bigger frames.
3 years ago
Our P4 source code requires to contains Xilinx
3 years ago
annotations\footnote{F.i. ``@Xilinx\_MaxPacketRegion(1024)''} that define
the maximum packet size in bits. We observed two different errors on
the output packet, if the incoming packets exceed the maximum packet size:
3 years ago
\begin{itemize}
\item The output packet is longer than the original packet.
3 years ago
\item The output packet is corrupted.
\end{itemize}
While most of the P4 language is supported on the NetFPGA, some key
techniques are currently missing or not supported.
\begin{itemize}
\item Analysing / accessing payload is not supported
\item Checksum computation over payload is not supported
\item Using LPM tables can lead to compilation errors
3 years ago
\item Depending on the match type, only certain table sizes are allowed
\end{itemize}
Renaming variables in the declaration of the parser or deparser lead
to compilation errors. The P4 function syntax is not supported. For this
reason our implementation uses \texttt{\#define} statements instead of functions.
3 years ago
%ok
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
\section{\label{results:softwarenat64}Software Based NAT64}
3 years ago
Both solutions Tayga and Jool worked flawlessly. However as expected,
3 years ago
both solutions are CPU bound. Under high load
3 years ago
scenarios both solutions utilise one core fully. Neither Tayga as a
user space program nor Jool as a kernel module implement multi
threading.
%ok
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
\section{\label{results:benchmark}NAT64 Benchmarks}
3 years ago
In this section we give an overview of the benchmark design
and summarise the benchmarking results.
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
\subsection{\label{results:benchmark:design}Benchmark Design}
\begin{figure}[htbp]
\includegraphics[scale=0.6]{softwarenat64design}
\centering
\caption{Benchmark Design for NAT64 in Software Implementations}
\label{fig:softwarenat64design}
\end{figure}
We use two hosts for performing benchmarks: a load generator and a
NAT64 translator. Both hosts are equipped with a dual port
Intel X520 10 Gbit/s network card. Both hosts are connected using DAC
without any equipment in between. TCP offloading is enabled in the
X520 cards. Figure \ref{fig:softwarenat64design}
shows the network setup.
When testing the NetPFGA/P4 performance, the X520 cards in the NAT64
translator are disconnected and instead the NetPFGA ports are
connected, as shown in figure \ref{fig:netpfgadesign}. The load
generator is equipped with a quad core CPU (Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-6700
CPU @ 3.40GHz), enabled with hyperthreading and 16 GB RAM. The NAT64
translator is also equipped with a quard core CPU (Intel(R) Core(TM)
i7-4770 CPU @ 3.40GHz) and 16 GB RAM.
The first 10 seconds of the benchmark are excluded to avoid the TCP
warm up phase.\footnote{iperf -O 10 parameter, see section \ref{design:tests}.}
\begin{figure}[h]
\includegraphics[scale=0.5]{netpfgadesign}
\centering
\caption{NAT64 with NetFPGA Benchmark}
\label{fig:netpfgadesign}
\end{figure}
% ok
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
3 years ago
\subsection{\label{results:benchmark:summary}Benchmark Summary}
Overall \textbf{Tayga} has shown to be the slowest translator with an
achieved bandwidth of \textbf{about 3 Gbit/s}, followed by
\textbf{Jool} that translates at about \textbf{8 Gbit/s}. \textbf{Our
solution} is the fastest with an almost line rate translation speed
of about \textbf{9 Gbit/s} (compare tables \ref{tab:benchmarkv6} and
\ref{tab:benchmarkv4}).
3 years ago
The TCP based benchmarks show realistic numbers, while iperf reports
above line rate speeds (up to 22 gbit/s on a 10gbit/s link) for UDP
based benchmarks. For this reason we have summarised the UDP based
benchmarks with their average loss instead of listing the bandwidth
details. The ``adjusted bandwidth'' in the UDP benchmarks incorporates
the packets loss (compare tables \ref{tab:benchmarkv6v4udp} and
\ref{tab:benchmarkv4v6udp}).
3 years ago
Both software solutions showed significant loss of packets in the UDP
based benchmarks (Tayga: up to 91\%, Jool up to 71\%), while the
3 years ago
P4/NetFPGA showed a maximum of 0.01\% packet loss. Packet loss is only
recorded by iperf for UDP based benchmarks, as TCP packets are
confirmed and resent if necessary.
3 years ago
Tayga has the highest variation of results, which might be due to
being fully CPU bound, even in the non-parallel benchmark. Jool has
less variation and in general the P4/NetFPGA solution behaves almost
3 years ago
identical in different benchmark runs.
The CPU load for TCP based benchmarks with Jool was almost negligible,
however for UDP based benchmarks one core was almost 100\%
utilised. In all benchmarks with Tayga, one CPU was fully
utilised. When the translation for P4/NetFPGA happens within the
3 years ago
NetFPGA card, there was no CPU utilisation visible on the NAT64 host.
We see lower bandwidth for translating IPv4 to IPv6 in all solutions.
We suspect that this might be due to slighty increasing packet sizes
that occur during this direction of translation. Not only does this
vary the IPv4 versus IPv6 bandwidth, but it might also cause
fragmentation that slows down.
3 years ago
During the benchmarks with up to 10 parallel connections, no
3 years ago
significant CPU load was registered on the load generator. However
with 20 parallel connections, each of the two iperf
processes\footnote{The client process for sending, the server process for receiving.} partially
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spiked to 100\% CPU usage. With 50 parallel connections the CPU
load of each process hit 100\% often. For this reason we argue that
the benchmark results of the benchmarks with 20 or more parallel
connections might be affected by the load generator limits. While
there is no visible evidence in our results, this problem might become
more significant with higher speed links.
3 years ago
While Tayga's performance is reduced with the growing number of
3 years ago
parallel connections, both Jool and our P4/NetFPGA implementations
vary only slighty.
Overall the performance of Tayga, a Linux user space program, is as
3 years ago
expected. We were surprised about the good performance of Jool, which,
while slower than the P4/NetFPGA solution, is almost on par with our solution.
% ----------------------------------------------------------------------
\begin{table}[htbp]
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{| c | c | c | c | c |}
\hline
Implementation & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{min/avg/max in Gbit/s} \\
\hline
Tayga & 2.79 / 3.20 / 3.43 & 3.34 / 3.36 / 3.38 & 2.57 / 3.02 / 3.27 &
2.35 / 2.91 / 3.20 \\
\hline
Jool & 8.22 / 8.22 / 8.22 & 8.21 / 8.21 / 8.22 & 8.21 / 8.23 / 8.25
& 8.21 / 8.23 / 8.25\\
\hline
P4 / NetPFGA & 9.28 / 9.28 / 9.29 & 9.28 / 9.28 / 9.29 & 9.28 / 9.28
/ 9.29 & 9.28 / 9.28 / 9.29\\
\hline
Parallel connections & 1 & 10 & 20 & 50 \\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\caption{IPv6 to IPv4 TCP NAT64 Benchmark}
\label{tab:benchmarkv6}
\end{center}
\end{table}
3 years ago
%ok
3 years ago
% ---------------------------------------------------------------------
\begin{table}[htbp]
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{| c | c | c | c | c |}
\hline
Implementation & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{min/avg/max in Gbit/s} \\
\hline
Tayga & 2.90 / 3.15 / 3.34 & 2.87 / 3.01 / 3.22 &
2.68 / 2.85 / 3.09 & 2.60 / 2.78 / 2.88 \\
\hline
Jool & 7.18 / 7.56 / 8.24 & 7.97 / 8.05 / 8.09 &
8.05 / 8.08 / 8.10 & 8.10 / 8.12 / 8.13 \\
\hline
P4 / NetPFGA & 8.51 / 8.53 / 8.55 & 9.28 / 9.28 / 9.29 & 9.29 / 9.29 /
9.29 & 9.28 / 9.28 / 9.29 \\
\hline
Parallel connections & 1 & 10 & 20 & 50 \\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\caption{IPv4 to IPv6 TCP NAT64 Benchmark}
\label{tab:benchmarkv4}
\end{center}
\end{table}
3 years ago
% ---------------------------------------------------------------------
\begin{table}[htbp]
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{| c | c | c | c | c |}
\hline
Implementation & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{avg bandwidth in gbit/s / avg loss /
adjusted bandwith} \\
\hline
Tayga & 8.02 / 70\% / 2.43 & 9.39 / 79\% / 1.97 & 15.43 / 86\% / 2.11
& 19.27 / 91\% 1.73 \\
\hline
Jool & 6.44 / 0\% / 6.41 & 6.37 / 2\% / 6.25 &
16.13 / 64\% / 5.75 & 20.83 / 71\% / 6.04 \\
\hline
P4 / NetPFGA & 8.28 / 0\% / 8.28 & 9.26 / 0\% / 9.26 &
16.15 / 0\% / 16.15 & 15.8 / 0\% / 15.8 \\
\hline
Parallel connections & 1 & 10 & 20 & 50 \\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\caption{IPv6 to IPv4 UDP NAT64 Benchmark}
3 years ago
\label{tab:benchmarkv6v4udp}
\end{center}
\end{table}
3 years ago
%ok
3 years ago
% ---------------------------------------------------------------------
\begin{table}[htbp]
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{| c | c | c | c | c |}
\hline
Implementation & \multicolumn{4}{|c|}{avg bandwidth in gbit/s / avg loss /
adjusted bandwith} \\
\hline
Tayga & 6.78 / 84\% / 1.06 & 9.58 / 90\% / 0.96 &
15.67 / 91\% / 1.41 & 20.77 / 95\% / 1.04 \\
\hline
Jool & 4.53 / 0\% / 4.53 & 4.49 / 0\% / 4.49 & 13.26 / 0\% / 13.26 &
22.57 / 0\% / 22.57\\
\hline
P4 / NetPFGA & 7.04 / 0\% / 7.04 & 9.58 / 0\% / 9.58 &
9.78 / 0\% / 9.78 & 14.37 / 0\% / 14.37\\
\hline
Parallel connections & 1 & 10 & 20 & 50 \\
\hline
\end{tabular}
\caption{IPv4 to IPv6 UDP NAT64 Benchmark}
\label{tab:benchmarkv4v6udp}
\end{center}
\end{table}
3 years ago
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